Intercultural Communication Challenge of Different Cultural Values and Etiquette
If you are looking to learn about the intercultural communication challenge of cultural values and etiquette, then please read this full literature review.
It is mandatory to understand the cultural values of the region. Cultural values can play a significant role to understand how the people of a particular region communicates with their colleagues, friends, and superiors, within a given business organization setting. Now, first of all its will be useful to understand what a culture really is and how it helps shape the cultural values of the people. Culture refers to the values, customs, and beliefs of the population of a certain region that defines their nature and behavior. Nifadkar et al. (2007) have done a significant study to understand the various cultures and their cultural values.
They argue in their paper that culture can play a significant role to define a society and its beliefs. For instance, the people in American society often shake hands with the strangers, when they meet in lifts. On the other hand, Japanese people greet the foreign visitors by bowing their heads down. Moreover, there are many practices in different cultures that may seem a bit tabo in other cultures. Therefore, understanding culture and cultural values of a region become mandatory for the business organizations (Tsui, Nifadkar, & Ou, 2007).
A more pronounced study in this case is done by Raphael (2001) who argues in his research paper that thinking about different ways of understanding every culture is not possible and not practical for a business organization. Therefore, a model made by Dutch social scientist Geert Hofstede is used called the “Hofstedes’ 6 Dimensional Model.” Hofstede has studies the employees of 66 different countries that were working in the IBM and divided the people of these 6 countries in different categories, depending upon the 6 dimensions of his cultural model.
Hofstede has put Australia in the individualistic cultural society, where the people are concerned only about themselves and their respective family members. They are not much influenced by the group or community of the society and do not obey to them (Raphael, 2001).
Figure 1. Australian Cultural Group (Hofstede, Country Comparison of Geert Hofstede’s Model Australia Vs UK, 2015)
On the other hand, China was put in the group of low uncertainty avoidance cultural society, where the are more comfortable to unpredictable situations that they may face in their work and family life. Chinese people are also collectivistic in nature, which means that they prefer to obey the group or community that they belong, which is fairly opposite to the cultural norms of the Australian people.
Figure 2. Chinese Cutural Group (Hofstede, COUNTRY COMPARISON, 2018)
A more pronounced research is done by Frauenheim (2005) to understand the difference in individualistic and collectivistic society. In the individualistic culture like Australia, people are more concerned about themselves and their immediate family members. They don not prefer to follow the rules of regulation of the society, group, or community they belong.
They give preference to their own independence and personal choices over any social of communal values. Individualistic people tends to be self-dependent and consider the principle of enjoying their life. If individualistic people are considered from the context of organization, then the employees of having individualism in their cultural values expected to be self-reliant and are supposed to display initiatives for the organization. The hiring and promotion process in individualistic societies are carried out on the basis of the personal attributes and expertise of the individual (Frauenheim, 2005).
On the other hand, the people of collectivistic society like China give preference to the values of their group, society, and community over the family values. Collectivistic people are obiged to their society, community, or group and have a blind faith on its values and principles. The family bonds in collectivistic societies like China are more influential in daily lifes, as compared to indivisualistic society, where people only bother about their nuclear families, i.e. their children and spouses only (Joiner, 2001).
Javidan and Dastmalchian (2003) supports the findings of Frauenheim (2005), while further arguing that it is crucial for any organization to understand how the collectivistic people prefer to give values to their family groups and communities. Understanding the family values in collectivistic culture like China is beneficial for the organization to understand the work behaviors of the employees.
For instance, an oil manufacturing MNC operating in China had been suffering from low productivity. When, the situation was investigated, then it was recognized that the new manager has gotten rid of the monthly fiesta for employees and their families. The employees got a wrong intuition in their mind due to their collectivistic cultural values that the organization no more bothers about their wellbeing and the results was their low productivity (Javidan & Dastmalchian, 2003).
It is evident after many researches that etiquette can help the managers to manage the employees of different cultural values. Zator-Peljan (2013) argues in his research paper that knowing business etiquettes has become crucial for every MNC, not only to fit into the unknown foreign reality, but also to successfully negotiate with the foreign delegates for the organizational profit.
Therefore, the role of etiquette is significant to express the business and the real need to train the global employees, in developing interpersonal relations, group communications, and cross-cultural negotiation skills. The proper understanding of business etiquette can increase the knowledge and consciousness of own and foreign culture of the manager, which is a good instrument to reduce and sometimes even eliminate conflicts and bottlenecks within an organizational environment (Zator-Peljan, 2013).
So this was the full literature review of intercultural communication challenge of different cultural values and etiquette. You can use this literature review after rephrasing. However, don’t try to copy paste because it is prohibited in University writing and considered plagiarism.
Frauenheim, E. (2005). Crossing cultures. Workforce Management, 84(13), 1-32.
Hofstede, G. (2018, April 6). COUNTRY COMPARISON. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from www.hofstede-insights.com: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/australia,indonesia/
Javidan, M., & Dastmalchian, A. (2003). Culture and leadership in Iran: The land of individual achievers, strong family ties and powerful elite. Academy of Management Executive, 17(5), 127-142.
Joiner, A. (2001). The influence of national culture and organizational culture alignment on job stress and performance: Evidence from Greece. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(6), 229-243.
Raphael, T. (2001). Savvy companies build bonds with Hispanic employees. Journal of Workforce, 80(9), 19.
Tsui, A. S., Nifadkar, S. S., & Ou, A. Y. (2007). Cross-national, cross-cultural organizational behavior research: Advances, gaps, and recommendations. Journal of Management, 33(1), 426-478.
Zator-Peljan, J. (2013). Business Etiquette in Poland, Germany, France and China: an Intercultural Approach. Global Management Journal, 5(1), 46-52.
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